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André Breton

Posted on March 12, 2012 at 6:01 AM
André BretonL’homme de lettres André Breton est considéré comme le fondateur du surréalisme. Il naît le 18 février 1896 à Tinchebray en Normandie. La famille s’installe à Paris en 1900. André Breton y poursuit sa scolarité et se prépare ensuite à faire des études de médecine. Il commence très tôt à s’intéresser à la poésie lyrique et à la littérature. En 1914, ses premiers poèmes lyriques paraissent dans la revue "La Phalange". Un an plus tard, Breton est incorporé au service de santé. C’est à cette époque qu’il commence à étudier les théories de Sigmund Freud. En 1917, André Breton est de nouveau affecté à Paris où il fait la rencontre du poète Guillaume Apollinaire et où il découvre l’œuvre de Lautréamont. Peu de temps après, Breton met fin à ses études de médecine et décide de faire une carrière d’écrivain indépendant.
En 1919, il est le cofondateur de la revue "Littérature" dont les principes sont proches de ceux du dadaïsme. Le mouvement dada se scinde au bout de quelques années. En 1924, André Breton rédige le "Manifeste du surréalisme" et fonde la revue "La Révolution surréaliste". Dans ses théories, il explique l’effet spontané du subconscient, la toute-puissance du rêve et le caractère désintéressé de la pensée quant aux contenus de l’art surréaliste. Le groupe surréaliste se rapproche du communisme et André Breton entre au Parti communiste français en 1927.
L’année suivante, Breton écrit l’essai "Le Surréalisme et la Peinture" et tente de trouver un fondement théorique pour la peinture surréaliste. Dans le "Seconde manifeste du surréalisme" paru en 1930, il essaie de redéfinir le mouvement comme un mouvement révolutionnaire et social. Le groupe commence à douter des dogmes du Parti communiste et cette position entraîne la rupture avec le parti en 1935. André Breton rédige un manifeste au moyen duquel il défend un art révolutionnaire indépendant. En 1938, il organise la première exposition internationale des surréalistes à Paris. Deux ans plus tard, Breton doit fuir la Wehrmacht. Il rencontre Marcel Duchamp et Max Ernst à New York.
André Breton rentre à Paris à la fin de la guerre. Les années qui suivent sont caractérisées par son combat en vue de défendre les objectifs du mouvement surréaliste et il organise la dernière grande exposition surréaliste.
André Breton meurt le 28 septembre 1966 à Paris.

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